TED Talks: The official TED guide to public speaking: Tips and tricks for giving unforgettable speeches and presentations (English Edition)
Author: Anderson, Chris
Anderson, Chris. TED Talks: The official TED guide to public speaking: Tips and tricks for giving unforgettable speeches and presentations (English Edition). Hodder & Stoughton, 2016. Kindle file.
Notes by: Jacopo Perfetti.

Prologue: The New Age of Fire
56
Ants shape each other’s behavior by exchanging chemicals. We do it by standing in front of each other, peering into each other’s eyes, waving our hands and emitting strange sounds from our mouths.
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There is no one way to give a great talk.
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That’s because a key part of the appeal of a great talk is its freshness.
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Your only real job in giving a talk is to have something valuable to say, and to say it authentically in your own unique way.
79
public speaking is the key to unlocking empathy,
80
Our campfire is now the whole world. Thanks to the Internet,
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these skills are teachable.
93
It’s called presentation literacy.
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“the art of speaking effectively.”
Foundation
1 PRESENTATION LITERACY
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public speaking
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why the anxiety?
1. Presentation Literacy: The Skill You Can Build > 145
It’s because there’s a lot at stake —not just the experience in the moment, but in our longer-term reputation.
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How others think of us matters hugely. We are profoundly social animals.
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you can use your fear as an incredible asset.

 

THE BOY WITH THE LION-HEART
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Your goal is not to be Winston Churchill or Nelson Mandela. It’s to be you. If you’re a scientist, be a scientist; don’t try to be an activist.
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If you know how to talk to a group of friends over dinner, then you know enough to speak publicly.
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being the authentic you,
2 IDEA BUILDING
2. Idea Building: The Gift in Every Great Talk > 262
Your number-one mission as a speaker is to take something that matters deeply to you and to rebuild it inside the minds of your listeners.
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We’ll call that something an idea.
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planted an idea inside the minds of those listening.

 

START WITH THE IDEA
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The only thing that truly matters in public speaking is
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having something worth saying.
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An idea is anything that can change how people see the world.
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Style without substance is awful.
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To be worth an audience’s time, most talks require grounding in something that has some depth.
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You have always been you, and you only see yourself from the inside. The bits that others find remarkable in you may be completely invisible to you.
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have honest conversations with those who know you best.
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there’s one thing you have that no one else in the world has: Your own first-person experience of life.

 

PROCRASTINATE NO MORE
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You can use the opportunity of public speaking as motivation to dive more deeply into some topic.
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if you think you might have something but aren’t sure you really know enough yet, why not use your public-speaking opportunity as an incentive to truly find out?
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we tried an experiment at TED headquarters.
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We granted everyone on the team an extra day off every second week to devote to studying
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Everyone had to commit, at some point during the year, to giving a TED Talk to the rest of the organization about what they’ve learned.
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provided the key incentive for people to get on with it and actually learn.

 

THE ASTONISHING EFFICACY OF LANGUAGE
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language works its magic only to the extent that it is shared by speaker and listener.
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You can only use the tools that your audience has access to.
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If you start only with your language, your concepts, your assumptions, your values, you will fail. So instead, start with theirs.
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It’s only from that common ground that they can begin to build your idea inside their minds.

 

YES, WORDS MATTER
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the whole substance of a talk depends crucially on words.
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if you hear someone tell you that body language matters more than verbal language in public speaking, please know that they are misinterpreting the science.

 

THE JOURNEY
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talk. It is a journey that speaker and audience take together.
3 COMMON TRAPS

 

THE SALES PITCH
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They plan to take, not give.
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The most effective salespeople put themselves into their listeners’ shoes and imagine how to best serve their needs.)
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the principle is crucial: Give, don’t take.

 

THE RAMBLE
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to boast that you’ve underprepared? That’s insulting.
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It tells the audience that their time doesn’t matter.
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you first have to spend some preparation time. Rambling is not an option.

 

THE ORG BORE
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Any talk framed around the exceptional history of your company
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leave your audience snoozing at the starting line.
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Everything changes, though, when you focus on the nature of the work that you’re doing, and the power of the ideas that infuse it, not on the org itself or its products.

 

THE INSPIRATION PERFORMANCE
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one of the most powerful things you can experience when watching a talk is inspiration.
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the cliché of TED that we’d tried so hard to eliminate. All style, very little substance.
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Here’s the thing about inspiration: It has to be earned.
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Inspiration is like love. You don’t get it by pursuing it directly.
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If you try to take the shortcut and win people over purely with your charisma, you may succeed for a moment or two, but soon you’ll be found out, and the audience will flee.
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People had felt manipulated.
4 THE THROUGHLINE
4. The Throughline: What’s Your Point? > 506
The point of a talk is … to say something meaningful. But it’s amazing how many talks never quite do that.
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try to encapsulate your throughline in no more than fifteen words.
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And those fifteen words need to provide robust content.
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not to have a throughline that’s too predictable or banal,
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such as “the importance of hard work”
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Here are the throughlines of some popular TED Talks.
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More choice actually makes us less happy.
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The combination of three simple technologies creates a mind-blowing sixth sense.
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when the audience knows where you’re headed, it’s much easier for them to follow.
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the throughline traces the path that the journey takes.
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how do you figure out your throughline?
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The first step is to find out as much as you can about the audience.
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the biggest obstacle in identifying a throughline is expressed in every speaker’s primal scream: I have far too much to say and not enough time to say it!

 

THE WRONG WAY
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throughlines that connect large numbers of concepts don’t work.
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There’s a drastic consequence when you rush through multiple topics in summary form. They don’t land with any force.
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Overstuffed equals underexplained.
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To say something interesting you have to take the time to do at least two things:
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Show why it matters
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Flesh out each point you make with real examples, stories, facts.

 

THE RIGHT WAY
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you cover less, but the impact will actually be significantly greater.
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The secret of successful talks often lies in what is left out.
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You will only cover as much ground as you can dive into in sufficient depth to be compelling.

 

FROM THROUGHLINE TO STRUCTURE
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Sir Ken Robinson.
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most of his talks follow this simple structure:
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Introduction —getting settled, what will be covered
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Context —why this issue matters
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Main Concepts
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Practical Implications
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Conclusion
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What? So What? Now What?

 

TACKLING TOUGH TOPICS
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think of your talk not as being about an issue, but about an idea.
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An issue-based talk leads with morality.
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An idea-based talk leads with curiosity.
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An issue exposes a problem. An idea proposes a solution.

 

THE CHECKLIST
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your throughline, here’s a simple checklist:
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Is this a topic I’m passionate about?
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Does it inspire curiosity?
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Will it make a difference to the audience to have this knowledge?
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Is my talk a gift or an ask?
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Is the information fresh, or is it already out there?
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Can I truly explain the topic in the time slot allocated,
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Do I know enough about this
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Do I have the credibility
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What are the fifteen words that encapsulate my talk?
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Would those fifteen words persuade
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pick a topic that lives deep within you.
Talk Tools
5 CONNECTION
5. Connection: Get Personal > 702
Knowledge can’t be pushed into a brain. It has to be pulled in.
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you need their permission.
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It’s not just the words. Not at all. It’s the person delivering the words.
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there has to be a human connection.
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if you don’t first connect with the audience, it just won’t land.
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People aren’t computers. They’re social creatures with
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weapons to protect against dangerous knowledge
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skepticism, mistrust, dislike, boredom,
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your very first job as a speaker is to find a way to disarm those weapons and build a trusting human bond
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Here are five suggestions:

 

MAKE EYE CONTACT, RIGHT FROM THE START
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Great speakers find a way of making an early connection with their audience.
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If I’m beaming, I will make you smile inside.
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If I’m nervous, you’ll feel a little anxious too.
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The best tool
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A natural human smile.

 

SHOW VULNERABILITY
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reveal your own vulnerability.
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Everyone relaxes.
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Vulnerability is not oversharing.
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Is sharing done in service of the work on stage or is it a way to work through our own stuff?
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The former is powerful, the latter damages the confidence people have in us.”

 

MAKE ’EM LAUGH —BUT NOT SQUIRM!
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humor is a wonderful way to bring the audience with you.
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When you laugh with someone, you both feel you’re on the same side.
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laughter
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It’s a powerful signal that you’re connecting.
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Ineffective humor is worse than no humor at all.
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it’s really worth trying to find your own brand of humor that works.

 

PARK YOUR EGO
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Nothing damages the prospects of a talk more than the sense that the speaker is a blowhard.
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Self-deprecation, in the right hands, is a beautiful thing.

 

TELL A STORY
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Storytelling
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build connection with the audience.
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can appear at any stage of a talk.
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Tales of failure, awkwardness, misfortune, danger, or disaster, told authentically, are often the moment when listeners shift from plain vanilla interest to deep engagement.
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They have started to care about you.
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The guideline here is just to be authentic.

 

AH, POLITICS
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the biggest killer of connection: tribal thinking.
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If you want to reach people who radically disagree with you, your only chance is to put yourself in their shoes as best you can.
6 NARRATION
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Stories helped make us who we are.
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the human mind coevolved with storytelling.
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many of the best talks are anchored in storytelling.
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The classic formula is: A protagonist with goals meets an unexpected obstacle and a crisis results. The protagonist attempts to overcome the obstacle, leading to a climax, and finally a denouement.
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emphasize four key things:
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Base it on a character your audience can empathize with.
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Build tension,
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Offer the right level of detail.
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End with a satisfying resolution,
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Some of the greatest talks are built around a single story.
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Remember, the goal is to give. Personal stories sometimes fail to do that.
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they don’t automatically give the audience something they can walk away with: Insights, actionable information, perspective, context, hope.
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other nonnegotiable essential
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It has to be true.
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When you combine a truthful story with a desire to use it for others’ benefit, you can give your listeners an extraordinary gift.

 

THE POWER OF PARABLE
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A parable might work very well with an audience that already knows your field, but it will need much greater elucidation for those outside it.
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other risks
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Sometimes the analogy doesn’t quite fit.
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you miss drawing out the necessary conclusions.
7 EXPLANATION
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Do you feel a little spark of curiosity? That’s the first step to a successful explanation.
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Once a mind is intrigued, it opens up. It wants new ideas.
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Let’s recap:
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Step 1. He started right where we were.
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Step 2. He lit a fire called curiosity.
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Step 3. He brought in concepts one by one.
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Step 4. He used metaphors.
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Step 5. He used examples.
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Understanding. We can define it as the upgrading of a worldview to better reflect reality.
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It’s built as a hierarchy, with each layer supplying the elements that construct the next layer.
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We start with what we know, and we add bits piece by piece, with each part positioned by using already understood language,
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have the balance right between the concepts you are introducing and the examples and metaphors needed to make them understandable.
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A single-sentence metaphor and: click! the light comes on.
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it is helpful to ask: What do you assume your audience already knows?

 

THE CURSE OF KNOWLEDGE
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a cognitive bias
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“the curse of knowledge.” In a nutshell, we find it hard to remember what it feels like not to know something that we ourselves know well.
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A physicist lives and breathes subatomic particles and may assume that everyone else of course knows what a charm quark is.
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Every sentence is understandable, but the speaker forgets to show how they link together. To him, it’s obvious.
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some of the most important elements in a talk are the little phrases that give clues to the talk’s overall structure: “Although …” “One recent example …”
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Equally important is the precise sequencing of sentences and concepts so that understanding can build naturally.
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It’s especially important to do a jargon check.
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Any technical terms or acronyms that may be unfamiliar to your listeners should be eliminated or explained.

 

FROM EXPLANATION TO EXCITEMENT
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consider making clear what it isn’t.
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You can’t give a powerful new idea to an audience unless you can learn how to explain.
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That can only be done step by step, fueled by curiosity.
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Each step builds on what the listener already knows.
8 PERSUASION
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Persuasion means convincing an audience that the way they currently see the world isn’t quite right.
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And that means taking down the parts that aren’t working, as well as rebuilding something better.
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How did he do it? First with a little demolition.
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Our minds need to be primed before they can be persuaded.

 

PERSUASION AND PRIMING
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storytelling can be a key part of the persuasion toolkit.
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the key to prompting that worldview shift is to take the journey one step at a time, priming our minds in several different ways before getting to the main argument.
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Daniel Dennett explains it best. He coined the term intuition pump to refer to any metaphor or linguistic device that intuitively makes a conclusion seem more plausible.
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This is priming.
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it is simply a way of nudging someone in your direction.
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Once people have been primed, it’s much easier to make your main argument.
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And how do you do that?
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Reason.

 

THE LONG REACH OF REASON
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the core mechanism here is if-then: if X is true, dear friends, then, clearly, Y follows
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There’s another form of reasoned argument, known as reductio ad absurdum, that can be devastatingly powerful.
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It is the process of taking the counter position to what you’re arguing and showing that it leads to a contradiction.

 

MAKE US DETECTIVES
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the detective story.
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You start with the big mystery, then travel the world of ideas in search of possible solutions to it, ruling them out one by one, until there’s only one viable solution that survives.
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Instead of being told facts, we’ve been invited to join the process of discovery.

 

IT WILL TAKE MORE THAN LOGIC
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To make a talk truly persuasive, it is not enough to build it out of watertight logical steps.
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without being energized, they may quickly forget the argument and move on.
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There are lots of tools you can use
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Inject some humor early on.
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Add an anecdote.
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Offer vivid examples.
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Recruit third-party validation.
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Use powerful visuals.
9 REVELATION
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the most direct way of gifting an idea to an audience? Simply show it to them.
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You reveal your work to the audience in a way that delights and inspires.
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revelation.
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Let’s take these three broad categories

 

THE WONDER WALK
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a talk based on the revelation of a succession of images or wonder moments.
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wonder walks work best when there’s a clear linking theme.
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stronger still is to have a throughline that pulls all the pieces together.
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Above all, design the talk to give us maximum experience of the work itself.
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they can be amplified in their power by a tool all too rarely used by speakers: silence.

 

THE DYNAMIC DEMO
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it’s not enough just to look at it. We need to see it working.
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We need a demonstration.
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Give us a hint of what we’re about to see.
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Then take us through the necessary context,
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The structure
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An initial tease
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Necessary background, context,
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The demo itself
9. Revelation: Take My Breath Away! > 1515
The implications of the technology

 

THE DREAMSCAPE
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Humans have a skill that, so far as we know, no other species possesses.
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imagination,
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It is the ability to pattern the world in our minds and then re-pattern it to create a world that doesn’t actually exist but someday might.
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sharing a dream.
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dreamscape speakers
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speak not of the world as it is, but as it might be.
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There are two keys to sharing a dream effectively:
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Paint a bold picture of the alternative future you desire;
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Do so in such a way that others will also desire that future.
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make it clear why this future is worth pursuing.
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That’s the power of our dreams. They can spread to others, build excitement and belief, and thereby make themselves come true.
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they also inspire us to work harder on our own dreams.

 

MIX AND MATCH
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talks
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include elements from many of them.
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The above techniques are not to be seen as in any way limiting you.
9. Revelation: Take My Breath Away! > 1594
Select, mix, match, and augment in the way that works most powerfully and authentically for the idea you wish to build.
9. Revelation: Take My Breath Away! > 1597
four key elements of the talk-preparation process
9. Revelation: Take My Breath Away! > 1598
Whether or not to include visuals,
9. Revelation: Take My Breath Away! > 1598
Whether to script and memorize your talk, or plan to speak “in the moment”
9. Revelation: Take My Breath Away! > 1599
How to practice
9. Revelation: Take My Breath Away! > 1599
And how to open and close for maximum impact
Preparation Process
10 VISUALS
10. Visuals: Those Slides Hurt! > 1605
all can dial up both the explanatory power of a talk and its aesthetic appeal.
10. Visuals: Those Slides Hurt! > 1607
a third of TED’s most viewed talks make no use of slides
10. Visuals: Those Slides Hurt! > 1608
Slides move at least a little bit of attention away from the speaker
10. Visuals: Those Slides Hurt! > 1614
Having no slides at all is better than bad slides.
10. Visuals: Those Slides Hurt! > 1614
the majority of talks do benefit from great slides,
10. Visuals: Those Slides Hurt! > 1618
what are the key elements to strong visuals?
10. Visuals: Those Slides Hurt! > 1619
Revelation
10. Visuals: Those Slides Hurt! > 1619
Explanatory power
10. Visuals: Those Slides Hurt! > 1619
Aesthetic appeal
10. Visuals: Those Slides Hurt! > 1662
there is no value in simply repeating in text what you are saying on stage.
10. Visuals: Those Slides Hurt! > 1669
The main purpose of visuals
10. Visuals: Those Slides Hurt! > 1669
It’s to share things your mouth can’t do so well:
10. Visuals: Those Slides Hurt! > 1676
ask
10. Visuals: Those Slides Hurt! > 1676
Are visuals key to explaining what I want to say? And, if so, how do I best combine them with my words so that they’re working powerfully together?

 

DELIGHT!
10. Visuals: Those Slides Hurt! > 1680
The mistake is to assume that you have to explain every image.

 

PRESENTATION SOFTWARE TIPS
10. Visuals: Those Slides Hurt! > 1693
three main presentation tools: PowerPoint, Keynote (for Mac), and Prezi.
10. Visuals: Those Slides Hurt! > 1698
change the settings to 16: 9
10. Visuals: Those Slides Hurt! > 1699
Don’t use the software’s built-in templates of bullets, letters, and dashes.
10. Visuals: Those Slides Hurt! > 1701
photographs should be shown “full bleed.”
10. Visuals: Those Slides Hurt! > 1702
meaning that the image covers the entire screen.
10. Visuals: Those Slides Hurt! > 1705
pictures with the highest resolution possible

 

FONTS/ TYPEFACES
10. Visuals: Those Slides Hurt! > 1707
use one typeface per presentation.
10. Visuals: Those Slides Hurt! > 1708
medium-weight sans-serif fonts like Helvetica or Arial.
10. Visuals: Those Slides Hurt! > 1710
Use 24 points or larger
10. Visuals: Those Slides Hurt! > 1716
Black on white, a dark color on white,
10. Visuals: Those Slides Hurt! > 1728
Give your audience enough time to absorb each step.
10. Visuals: Those Slides Hurt! > 1739
It’s great to include a photo of you in your working environment:
10. Visuals: Those Slides Hurt! > 1746
Videos can be amazing tools to demonstrate your work and ideas. However, you should rarely show clips longer than 30 seconds.
10. Visuals: Those Slides Hurt! > 1747
no more than two to four clips
10. Visuals: Those Slides Hurt! > 1749
A badly produced video will have your audience thinking more about its poor quality than about its content.
10. Visuals: Those Slides Hurt! > 1757
There are two transitions I do like: none (an instant cut, like in film editing) and dissolve.
10. Visuals: Those Slides Hurt! > 1763
Send your presentation to your hosts, and bring a USB stick
10. Visuals: Those Slides Hurt! > 1769
Make sure you have a legal license to use the photos, videos, music, and any special fonts,

 

TESTING
10. Visuals: Those Slides Hurt! > 1772
There are two kinds of testing: human and technical.
11 SCRIPTING
11. Scripting: To Memorize or Not to Memorize? > 1837
There are many ways to prepare for and deliver a talk, and it’s important to find the one that’s right for you.
11. Scripting: To Memorize or Not to Memorize? > 1839
there is a long list of things that can go wrong, among them:
11. Scripting: To Memorize or Not to Memorize? > 1848
it has to be the right type of preparation. And that begins with knowing how you plan to deliver your talk.
11. Scripting: To Memorize or Not to Memorize? > 1850
No lecterns. Never read your talk.
11. Scripting: To Memorize or Not to Memorize? > 1851
People truly respond to the vulnerability of a speaker who stands there unprotected by a lectern and speaks from the heart. That is human-to-human communication in its purest form.
11. Scripting: To Memorize or Not to Memorize? > 1871
The huge advantage of going the scripted route is that you can make the best possible use of your available time. It can be incredibly hard to condense all you want to say into 10, 15, or 18 minutes.
11. Scripting: To Memorize or Not to Memorize? > 1888
if you go the script route, you have three main strategies open to you: Know the talk so well that it doesn’t for a moment sound scripted.
11. Scripting: To Memorize or Not to Memorize? > 1890
Refer to the script
11. Scripting: To Memorize or Not to Memorize? > 1894
being familiar enough with the script
11. Scripting: To Memorize or Not to Memorize? > 1896
Condense the script to bullet points and plan to express each point in your own language in the moment.
11. Scripting: To Memorize or Not to Memorize? > 1946
Practice doesn’t make perfect. Practice makes imperfection livable.

 

UNSCRIPTED TALKS
11. Scripting: To Memorize or Not to Memorize? > 1978
from impromptu ad-libbing to intricately prepared and structured talks accompanied by rich visuals.
11. Scripting: To Memorize or Not to Memorize? > 1981
going unscripted. It can sound fresh, alive, real, like you are thinking out loud.
11. Scripting: To Memorize or Not to Memorize? > 1983
distinguish unscripted from unprepared.
11. Scripting: To Memorize or Not to Memorize? > 1988
a strategy to avoid the obvious pitfalls of such an approach:
11. Scripting: To Memorize or Not to Memorize? > 1989
suddenly you can’t, in the moment, find the words to explain a key concept.
11. Scripting: To Memorize or Not to Memorize? > 1991
you leave out something crucial.
11. Scripting: To Memorize or Not to Memorize? > 1993
you overrun your time slot.
11. Scripting: To Memorize or Not to Memorize? > 2063
The majority of TED speakers do in fact script their whole talk and memorize it, and they do their best to avoid letting it sound memorized.
11. Scripting: To Memorize or Not to Memorize? > 2067
The key is to find the mode you can feel confident about, and commit to it.
12 RUN-THROUGHS
12. Run-Throughs: Wait, I Need to Rehearse? > 2072
there’s a very simple, very obvious tool you can use to improve your talk, but it’s one that most speakers rarely undertake: Rehearse. Repeatedly.
12. Run-Throughs: Wait, I Need to Rehearse? > 2111
But rehearsals that actually created the talk.
12. Run-Throughs: Wait, I Need to Rehearse? > 2125
The best memorized talks are known so well that speakers can concentrate on their passion for the ideas they contain.
12. Run-Throughs: Wait, I Need to Rehearse? > 2131
Talks should be fresh, unique, live!
12. Run-Throughs: Wait, I Need to Rehearse? > 2160
I recommend you have someone record these rehearsals on a smartphone so that you can take a look at yourself in action.
12. Run-Throughs: Wait, I Need to Rehearse? > 2162
It’s really important that you take the clock seriously.
12. Run-Throughs: Wait, I Need to Rehearse? > 2163
Overrunning the clock is stealing time from the speakers who follow you.
12. Run-Throughs: Wait, I Need to Rehearse? > 2165
In history, many of the most powerful talks were short and to the point.
12. Run-Throughs: Wait, I Need to Rehearse? > 2168
cut your material until you’re sure you can finish well under the limit.
13 OPEN AND CLOSE
13. Open And Close: What Kind of Impression Would You Like to Make? > 2182
At the beginning of your talk, you have about a minute to intrigue people with what you’ll be saying.
13. Open And Close: What Kind of Impression Would You Like to Make? > 2182
And the way you end will strongly influence how your talk is remembered.
13. Open And Close: What Kind of Impression Would You Like to Make? > 2183
script and memorize the opening minute and the closing lines.

 

FOUR WAYS TO START STRONG
13. Open And Close: What Kind of Impression Would You Like to Make? > 2200
Starting strong is one of your most important weapons.
13. Open And Close: What Kind of Impression Would You Like to Make? > 2204
1. Deliver a dose of drama Your first words really do matter.
13. Open And Close: What Kind of Impression Would You Like to Make? > 2241
2. Ignite curiosity
13. Open And Close: What Kind of Impression Would You Like to Make? > 2254
How do you spark curiosity? The obvious way is to ask a question. But not just any question. A surprising question.
13. Open And Close: What Kind of Impression Would You Like to Make? > 2289
3. Show a compelling slide, video, or object
13. Open And Close: What Kind of Impression Would You Like to Make? > 2312
4. Tease, but don’t give it away
13. Open And Close: What Kind of Impression Would You Like to Make? > 2340
You don’t have to show the shark, but we do need to know it’s coming.

 

SEVEN WAYS TO END WITH POWER
13. Open And Close: What Kind of Impression Would You Like to Make? > 2360
how not to end:
13. Open And Close: What Kind of Impression Would You Like to Make? > 2360
“Well, that’s my time gone, so I’ll wrap up there.”
13. Open And Close: What Kind of Impression Would You Like to Make? > 2361
“Finally, I just want to thank my awesome team,
13. Open And Close: What Kind of Impression Would You Like to Make? > 2365
“The future is full of challenges and opportunities. Everyone here has it in their heart to make a difference.
13. Open And Close: What Kind of Impression Would You Like to Make? > 2367
“I’ll close with this video which summarizes my points.”
13. Open And Close: What Kind of Impression Would You Like to Make? > 2368
now are there any questions?”
13. Open And Close: What Kind of Impression Would You Like to Make? > 2369
“I’m sorry I haven’t had time to discuss some
13. Open And Close: What Kind of Impression Would You Like to Make? > 2373
“Thanks for being such an amazing audience.
13. Open And Close: What Kind of Impression Would You Like to Make? > 2380
seven better ways to end:
13. Open And Close: What Kind of Impression Would You Like to Make? > 2380
Camera pull-back
13. Open And Close: What Kind of Impression Would You Like to Make? > 2381
show us the bigger picture, a broader set of possibilities implied by your work?
13. Open And Close: What Kind of Impression Would You Like to Make? > 2391
Call to action
13. Open And Close: What Kind of Impression Would You Like to Make? > 2392
why not end by nudging them to act on it?
13. Open And Close: What Kind of Impression Would You Like to Make? > 2401
Personal commitment
13. Open And Close: What Kind of Impression Would You Like to Make? > 2417
Values and vision
13. Open And Close: What Kind of Impression Would You Like to Make? > 2426
Satisfying encapsulation
13. Open And Close: What Kind of Impression Would You Like to Make? > 2427
reframe the case they’ve been making.
13. Open And Close: What Kind of Impression Would You Like to Make? > 2437
Narrative symmetry
13. Open And Close: What Kind of Impression Would You Like to Make? > 2438
by linking back to its opening.
13. Open And Close: What Kind of Impression Would You Like to Make? > 2443
Lyrical inspiration
13. Open And Close: What Kind of Impression Would You Like to Make? > 2444
end with poetic language that taps deep into matters of the heart.
On Stage
14 WARDROBE
14. Wardrobe: What Should I Wear? > 2469
The last thing you need is wardrobe stress in the hours leading up to your talk,
14. Wardrobe: What Should I Wear? > 2473
stodgy, slovenly, tasteless, boring, or trying too hard. But if you avoid those potential traps, wearing something that makes you feel good will help you project relaxed confidence.
14. Wardrobe: What Should I Wear? > 2476
Is there a dress code? How is the audience likely to be dressed?
14. Wardrobe: What Should I Wear? > 2478
avoid wearing brilliant white
14. Wardrobe: What Should I Wear? > 2478
or jet black
14. Wardrobe: What Should I Wear? > 2481
Avoid dangling earrings!
14. Wardrobe: What Should I Wear? > 2482
avoid jangly bracelets or anything flashy that might cause a reflection.
14. Wardrobe: What Should I Wear? > 2488
The audience loves bold, vibrant colors, and so does the camera.
14. Wardrobe: What Should I Wear? > 2489
Fitted clothing tends to look better on stage than outfits that are loose and baggy.
14. Wardrobe: What Should I Wear? > 2499
If you plan to use a hotel iron, press your clothes the night before and test the iron on a towel first.
14. Wardrobe: What Should I Wear? > 2505
just to wear something that boosts your confidence.
15 MENTAL PREP
15. Mental Prep: How Do I Control My Nerves? > 2519
Adrenaline’s great for
15. Mental Prep: How Do I Control My Nerves? > 2519
bring energy and excitement to your stage presence.
15. Mental Prep: How Do I Control My Nerves? > 2520
But too much of it is a bad thing. It can dry up your mouth and tighten your throat.
15. Mental Prep: How Do I Control My Nerves? > 2550
turn crippling fear into a calm, confident, engaging stage presence
15. Mental Prep: How Do I Control My Nerves? > 2551
Use your fear as motivation.
15. Mental Prep: How Do I Control My Nerves? > 2555
Breathe deeply, meditation style. The oxygen infusion brings calm with it.
15. Mental Prep: How Do I Control My Nerves? > 2556
Just take a deep breath right into your stomach, and let it out slowly.
15. Mental Prep: How Do I Control My Nerves? > 2562
Drink water. The worst aspect of nerves is when the adrenaline sucks the water from your mouth and you struggle to speak.
15. Mental Prep: How Do I Control My Nerves? > 2564
before you go on, try to drink a third of a bottle of water.
15. Mental Prep: How Do I Control My Nerves? > 2566
Avoid an empty stomach.
15. Mental Prep: How Do I Control My Nerves? > 2567
an empty stomach can exacerbate anxiety.
15. Mental Prep: How Do I Control My Nerves? > 2569
Audiences embrace speakers who are nervous, especially if the speaker can find a way to acknowledge it.
15. Mental Prep: How Do I Control My Nerves? > 2574
Find “friends” in the audience.
15. Mental Prep: How Do I Control My Nerves? > 2575
look out for faces that seem sympathetic.
15. Mental Prep: How Do I Control My Nerves? > 2579
Have a backup plan. If you’re worried about things going wrong, plan a few backup moves.
15. Mental Prep: How Do I Control My Nerves? > 2586
Focus on what you’re talking about.
16 SETUP
16. Setup: Lectern, Confidence Monitor, Note Cards, or (Gulp) Nothing? > 2616
If a speaker lets down his guard, so does the audience. If a speaker stays distant and safe, the audience will too.
16. Setup: Lectern, Confidence Monitor, Note Cards, or (Gulp) Nothing? > 2625
letting someone speak in a setup that makes him feel confident and allows him to most naturally find the words he needs matters even more than maximizing vulnerability.
16. Setup: Lectern, Confidence Monitor, Note Cards, or (Gulp) Nothing? > 2635
you place a full set of notes or even a script on a table or lectern at the side or back of the stage, along with a bottle of water.
16. Setup: Lectern, Confidence Monitor, Note Cards, or (Gulp) Nothing? > 2647
use a set of hand-held 5 x 8 inch cards, which you simply page through one by one.
16. Setup: Lectern, Confidence Monitor, Note Cards, or (Gulp) Nothing? > 2663
I don’t recommend using a smart device for notes you regularly refer to.
16. Setup: Lectern, Confidence Monitor, Note Cards, or (Gulp) Nothing? > 2690
No reading! That’s the only way to stay warmly connected to the audience.
16. Setup: Lectern, Confidence Monitor, Note Cards, or (Gulp) Nothing? > 2692
If confidence monitors are dangerous, a teleprompter is even more so.
16. Setup: Lectern, Confidence Monitor, Note Cards, or (Gulp) Nothing? > 2695
communicating to the audience, I’m pretending to look at you, but actually I’m reading.
16. Setup: Lectern, Confidence Monitor, Note Cards, or (Gulp) Nothing? > 2707
If you must refer to a full script, lengthy notes,
16. Setup: Lectern, Confidence Monitor, Note Cards, or (Gulp) Nothing? > 2708
Just go back to putting them on a lectern.
17 VOICE AND PRESENCE
17. Voice and Presence: Give Your Words the Life They Deserve > 2736
talks really can offer something more than the printed word.
17. Voice and Presence: Give Your Words the Life They Deserve > 2738
It’s the human overlay that turns information into inspiration.
17. Voice and Presence: Give Your Words the Life They Deserve > 2742
Here are some of the impacts
17. Voice and Presence: Give Your Words the Life They Deserve > 2743
Connection:
17. Voice and Presence: Give Your Words the Life They Deserve > 2743
Engagement:
17. Voice and Presence: Give Your Words the Life They Deserve > 2744
Curiosity:
17. Voice and Presence: Give Your Words the Life They Deserve > 2744
Understanding:
17. Voice and Presence: Give Your Words the Life They Deserve > 2745
Empathy:
17. Voice and Presence: Give Your Words the Life They Deserve > 2745
Excitement:
17. Voice and Presence: Give Your Words the Life They Deserve > 2746
Conviction:
17. Voice and Presence: Give Your Words the Life They Deserve > 2746
Action:
17. Voice and Presence: Give Your Words the Life They Deserve > 2781
If your talk is scripted, try this:
17. Voice and Presence: Give Your Words the Life They Deserve > 2781
Find the two or three words in each sentence that carry the most significance, and underline them.
17. Voice and Presence: Give Your Words the Life They Deserve > 2782
Then look for the one word in each paragraph that really matters and underline it twice more.
17. Voice and Presence: Give Your Words the Life They Deserve > 2784
Find the biggest single aha moment of the talk and inject a great big black blob right before it is revealed.
17. Voice and Presence: Give Your Words the Life They Deserve > 2785
Now try reading your script, applying a change in tone for each mark.
17. Voice and Presence: Give Your Words the Life They Deserve > 2788
Try to remember all the emotions associated with each passage of your talk.
17. Voice and Presence: Give Your Words the Life They Deserve > 2791
The point is to start thinking of your tone of voice as giving you a whole new set of tools to get inside your listeners’ heads.
17. Voice and Presence: Give Your Words the Life They Deserve > 2802
pay attention to: how fast you’re speaking.
17. Voice and Presence: Give Your Words the Life They Deserve > 2802
vary your pacing according to what you’re speaking about.
17. Voice and Presence: Give Your Words the Life They Deserve > 2803
When you’re introducing key ideas or explaining something that’s complex, slow down, and don’t be afraid to insert pauses.
17. Voice and Presence: Give Your Words the Life They Deserve > 2804
During anecdotes and lighter moments, speed up.
17. Voice and Presence: Give Your Words the Life They Deserve > 2804
conversational pace. For most speakers that’s somewhere in the range 130–170 words per minute.

 

RECRUIT YOUR BODY
17. Voice and Presence: Give Your Words the Life They Deserve > 2846
The simplest way to give a talk powerfully is just to stand tall, putting equal weight on both feet, which are positioned comfortably a few inches apart, and use your hands and arms to naturally amplify whatever you’re saying.
17. Voice and Presence: Give Your Words the Life They Deserve > 2850
The key is to feel relaxed, and to let your upper body move as it will.
17. Voice and Presence: Give Your Words the Life They Deserve > 2859
So, move if you want to. But if you do move, move intentionally.
18 FORMAT INNOVATION
18. Format Innovation: The Promise (and Peril) of Full-Spectrum Talks > 2888
In 18 minutes, you can utter about 2,500 words.
18. Format Innovation: The Promise (and Peril) of Full-Spectrum Talks > 2890
At TED, we use the term full spectrum to describe those attempts to build more into a talk than just words and slides.
18. Format Innovation: The Promise (and Peril) of Full-Spectrum Talks > 2890
Here are sixteen suggestions you could consider.
18. Format Innovation: The Promise (and Peril) of Full-Spectrum Talks > 2893
DRAMATIC PROPS
18. Format Innovation: The Promise (and Peril) of Full-Spectrum Talks > 2911
2. PANORAMIC SCREENS
18. Format Innovation: The Promise (and Peril) of Full-Spectrum Talks > 2920
3. MULTISENSE STIMULATION
18. Format Innovation: The Promise (and Peril) of Full-Spectrum Talks > 2930
4. LIVE PODCASTING
18. Format Innovation: The Promise (and Peril) of Full-Spectrum Talks > 2938
5. ILLUSTRATED INTERVIEW
18. Format Innovation: The Promise (and Peril) of Full-Spectrum Talks > 2955
6. SPOKEN WORD FUSION
18. Format Innovation: The Promise (and Peril) of Full-Spectrum Talks > 2957
it typically combines storytelling with intricate wordplay.
18. Format Innovation: The Promise (and Peril) of Full-Spectrum Talks > 2963
7. VIDEOPOETRY EXPLORATION
18. Format Innovation: The Promise (and Peril) of Full-Spectrum Talks > 2964
a “poetic juxtaposition of images with text and sound.”
18. Format Innovation: The Promise (and Peril) of Full-Spectrum Talks > 2969
8. ADDED MUSICAL SOUNDTRACK
18. Format Innovation: The Promise (and Peril) of Full-Spectrum Talks > 2980
9. THE LESSIG METHOD
18. Format Innovation: The Promise (and Peril) of Full-Spectrum Talks > 2981
Every sentence and almost every significant word is accompanied by a new visual, whether just a word, a photograph, an illustration, or a visual pun.
18. Format Innovation: The Promise (and Peril) of Full-Spectrum Talks > 2994
10. DUAL PRESENTERS
18. Format Innovation: The Promise (and Peril) of Full-Spectrum Talks > 2995
These somehow seem harder for audiences to connect to. They don’t know who to look at,
18. Format Innovation: The Promise (and Peril) of Full-Spectrum Talks > 3005
11. NEW DEBATE FORMATS
18. Format Innovation: The Promise (and Peril) of Full-Spectrum Talks > 3006
two people on stage at the same time, it’s usually more interesting when they’re on opposite sides of an issue.
18. Format Innovation: The Promise (and Peril) of Full-Spectrum Talks > 3013
12. SLIDE BLIZZARD
18. Format Innovation: The Promise (and Peril) of Full-Spectrum Talks > 3014
showing a sequence of slides and talking about each one.
18. Format Innovation: The Promise (and Peril) of Full-Spectrum Talks > 3023
13. LIVE EXHIBITION
18. Format Innovation: The Promise (and Peril) of Full-Spectrum Talks > 3024
not giving a talk at all. Instead, you’re creating the ultimate experience of immersion in your work.
18. Format Innovation: The Promise (and Peril) of Full-Spectrum Talks > 3040
14. SURPRISE APPEARANCES
18. Format Innovation: The Promise (and Peril) of Full-Spectrum Talks > 3048
15. VIRTUAL PRESENTERS
18. Format Innovation: The Promise (and Peril) of Full-Spectrum Talks > 3064
16. NO LIVE AUDIENCE
18. Format Innovation: The Promise (and Peril) of Full-Spectrum Talks > 3065
not to play with what happens on stage, but just to take away the stage altogether.
18. Format Innovation: The Promise (and Peril) of Full-Spectrum Talks > 3066
we can communicate to countless thousands of people live or via video. That global audience can dwarf any group
Reflection
19 TALK RENAISSANCE
19. Talk Renaissance: The Interconnectedness of Knowledge > 3084
Driven by our growing connectedness, one of humankind’s most ancient abilities is being reinvented for the modern era.
19. Talk Renaissance: The Interconnectedness of Knowledge > 3085
tomorrow, even more than today, learning to present your ideas live to other humans will prove to be an absolutely essential skill
19. Talk Renaissance: The Interconnectedness of Knowledge > 3183
In a world in which machines are rapidly getting super-smart at any specialist knowledge task we can throw at them, what are humans even for?
19. Talk Renaissance: The Interconnectedness of Knowledge > 3185
Humans are for being more human than we’ve ever been.
19. Talk Renaissance: The Interconnectedness of Knowledge > 3189
Anything that can be automated or calculated ultimately will be.
19. Talk Renaissance: The Interconnectedness of Knowledge > 3190
Now, we can be fearful of that, or we can embrace it and take the chance to discover a richer path to life fulfillment.
19. Talk Renaissance: The Interconnectedness of Knowledge > 3191
it’s probably going to include:
19. Talk Renaissance: The Interconnectedness of Knowledge > 3192
More system-level strategic thinking.
19. Talk Renaissance: The Interconnectedness of Knowledge > 3193
More innovation.
19. Talk Renaissance: The Interconnectedness of Knowledge > 3194
More creativity.
19. Talk Renaissance: The Interconnectedness of Knowledge > 3196
More utilization of uniquely human values.
19. Talk Renaissance: The Interconnectedness of Knowledge > 3204
we’re going to need:
19. Talk Renaissance: The Interconnectedness of Knowledge > 3205
Contextual knowledge means knowing the bigger picture, knowing the way all the pieces fit together.
19. Talk Renaissance: The Interconnectedness of Knowledge > 3206
Creative knowledge is the skill set obtained by exposure to a wide variety of other creative humans.
19. Talk Renaissance: The Interconnectedness of Knowledge > 3207
A deeper understanding of our own humanity comes not from listening to your parents or your friends, nor to psychologists, neuroscientists, historians, evolutionary biologists, anthropologists, or spiritual teachers. It comes from listening to all of them.
19. Talk Renaissance: The Interconnectedness of Knowledge > 3212
We’re entering an era where we all need to spend a lot more time learning from each other.
20 WHY THIS MATTERS
20. Why this Matters: The Interconnectedness of People > 3307
Online video was providing two things that had never before been available so potently:
20. Why this Matters: The Interconnectedness of People > 3308
Visibility of the best talent in the world
20. Why this Matters: The Interconnectedness of People > 3309
A massive incentive to improve on what was out there
20. Why this Matters: The Interconnectedness of People > 3311
you can discover thousands of niche communities,